ry -

1d An Tr al. er




D. K. MINOR, Eprror.}


[VOLUME IV.—No. 46.

a ee


Norwich and Worcéster Railroad.............. 721 Important. to Railroad Companies....,-...++.-- 723 ry. ©: Levers, with Steep Grades. .......,....+- 724 Canal round the Falls of Niagara............ 725 ExieGanaly Our Harbor ; Bituminous Coal Field of Pennsylvania... ......se.see see ceeeesss Internal Improv ement Convention at Utica ; Lia- bility of Canal Companies... .......-.04++ +++ 127 Meteoric Phenomena of 1834............++.++- 728 Booth's ‘Axle-Grease and Lubricating Fluid ; Fer- guson’s New Mode of Dressing Goods........ 729 Agriculture, &. 2.2... .00+sseecsencvees 730—736



Norwicu anpD Worcester Raitroap.— It is now over three years since the Legis- lature of Connecticut chartered a Company to construct a Railroad from Norwich to the Massachusetts line, in the direction of Worcester, with a view of opening another easy and direct communication between New-York and Boston. In March, 1833, the Legislature of Massachusetts chartered a Company to construct a Road from Worcester, to meet the Norwich Road, by which the line, between the metropolis of New-England and the growing city of Nor- wich, is complete.

Since these charters were granted, exa- minations and surveys have been made which show a highly favorable route ; and the immense amount of business along its line, which must pass over it, toge- ther with that portion of the travel from New-York, and the interior of New-Eng- land, which will naturally take this direc- tion, will; itis believed, afford an amount of transportation which will render it, not only avery useful work, but also a productive investment to its stockholders. That such will be the result, and that it will greatly enhance the value of property along its line, Wedo not entertain a doubt ; Norwich, es- pecially, will feel its influences, and partici. pate largely in the benefits resulting from its operations.

$ The commencement of sucha work, des-

tined, as we believe this is; to change the appearance of the whole country along its line, is worthy of espceial notice ; and we therefore availed ourself of an invitation, politely tendered by the President of the Company, to witness’ the interesting cere- mony of breaking ground. In order to do this, we left New-York on Tuesday eve- ning, 17th, at 4 o’elock, in that excellent steamboat, Bunker Hill, Capt. Sandford, for Norwich, where we arrived at half-past 8 o’clock on Wednesday morning, having remained at New-London from: a quarter before 2 until half-past 6 A. M., in time to witness the whole of the proceedings. On her passage,the Bunker Hill stopped-at New. Haven, and received on board His Excellen. cy Governor Edwards, and suite ; Mr. Ellis, Collector of the Port; Mr. Brewster, Presi- dent of the New-Haven Railroad Company, and several other distinguished citizens, al] of whom participated in the gratifying cere- monies.

We will now endeavor to give our readers some account of the proceedings, although we cannot expect to impart to them any portion of the thrilling interest which they afforded us; it being, singular as it may ap- pear, the first opportunity, of which we have been able to avail ourself, to be present at the commencement of a Railroad.

On the arrival of the Bunker Hill at Nor- wich, the Governor and suite, and other invited guests, were received at the boat by Messrs. Adams, and 1.’Homedieu, two of the Marshals of the day, and escorted to the Franklin Hotel. After remaining here a short time, affording an opportunity to some of the citizens of being introduced to the Go- vernor, they were conducted to the Mer- chants’ Hotel, and there joined the proces- sion, which moved at 11 o’clock towards Greeneville, (where the ceremonies were to be performed,) under the direction of Asa Curtp, Esq., Grand Marshal of the day. The |}

uniform companies, accompanied with mu- |

sic, took the lead; next the.Governor and suite; the Reverend Clergy ; revolutionary

soldiers ; the Corporation of Norwich and New-London ; invited guests; and citizens generally ; followed by a procession of seve- ral hundred boys, belonging to the schools, with banners; forming one of the most interesting spectacles of the whole ex- hibition. The procession was closed by an. immense CaR, drawn by six horses, on which was displayed samples of the nmumerous manufactures on the line of the: Road. Among the articles, we noticed the follow. ing: ingrain carpeting and rugs, domestic « goods, blank books, earthen, tin; wooden, and_ hardware, carriages, boats, cordage, ship blocks, saddles, trunks, cutlery, wea- vér’s reeds, broonis, stoves, harness om scythes, axes, glass beads, &e. dc.

The procession passed through the prin- cipal streets of Norwich, the windows and doors of the houses on each side being occupied by the ladies, neatly and-ap~ propriately dressed; and adding quite an agreeable feature to the'scene. Onleaving the town, the line of march extended along the banks of the Quinnebaug, from the .. heights of which minute. guns were fired until the procession reached Greeneville. . The ground selected for operations is néar the centre village, and directly in front, of. the splendid manufactories of Greeneyille.. As the procession approached the ground ges lected, it passed under a beautifully deco- rated arch, on which was. again displayed numerous and beautiful specimens of the products of Yankee industry.

The ground selected was staked out, and on the south side an immense staging: was erected, with ranges of seats. rising one above. another, covered with... ample awnings, beneath which, upon the staging»... were near a thousand ladies seated, who, appeared highly pleased with the display... The military were formed into. three. sides. of an immense hollow square, the ladies .. on the staging forming the fourth—the pro. | cession marched in and entirely occupied the square, exeepta space reserved for the. ceremonies of the day,

ion having been artangey ed guests stationed near-

sident of the ueonrey:

priate prayer—after which Catvin Gop-

DaRD, Esq., of Napalm, and made a fe

4 marks, He was fot unaffected, ‘he

, by the distpoititment in not ldatiing na address from a gentleman who was expected to be present, but who was unavoidably prevented from attending. (The speaker alluded to the Hon. Danren Wenssrer:}.He then remarked that they had assembied-on no common ocersion ; evéry.thing had hitherte been auspicious, and judging from the past, he had no fears for. the result of the enterprize in which they wefe that day engaged. He adverted to am allusioi of the Reverend gentleman to their present situation and that of their Pilgrim fathers. It is an interesting his- torical faet; seid he, that two hundred years age; last); Monday, the Pilgrims passed throught this county from Massachusetts Bay; having travelled through derse forests, and been fourteen days in performing the journey. It was indeed remarkable, that they should now be engaged in a work, whieh, whenever cotnpleted, would enable us.te accomplish the same distance in one half as many hours. There was something peculiar aiid interesting in these facts. Mr. Goddard next alluded to the scenes of war- fare with the then owners of the soil, the savages-sto the death of Mianrixomo— whe; he said; was killed by Uncus, and bu- ried but a short distance from where they thems Were==to the brave Uncus, the friend of ‘the white mun—asking, very appropii- ately; where are those. brave warriors? Whete are their people? Dispersed, de- graded, and destroyed;—they have disap- peated before the progress of civilization. He slsealladed to the fact that it was in this town where the brave Mason fell, and that they Were surrounded by interesting ipeidénts of foriiier timés. What is our présént ¢ofidition ? Compare it with all its advantages and impulses, and what will it or ‘rather what Will it not be two centuries hefice ? > He then referred toa single fact in the goveriiinent of Connecticut, which was worthy of Pecord— thé formation of the go- vefiitiient by thé people themselves, in theit prihary assemblies. “This was a pecii- liakity ‘whiich belonged to no other State.— “We finvé,” said he, “always been under

‘oes people.” iliiding “t6' the want of energy and progress heretofore, i the works of thter.

called upon, |


na! improvement in Connecticut, Mr. G. “observed, that Connecticut had furnished the meh, the material, to accomplish such works in most Of the other states of the Union, and therefore Connecticut had been permitted to remain in a great measure un- improved—but that now; fortunately for her, « different spirit prevails: The sons

indeed of all New-Eng- land, are engaging in, anid are resolved to

‘|| devote thémselves to, the iniprovement of ‘their own States ; the Jand of their birth—

= ) @ course which ‘will unquestionably tend.

more than any other, to detain them at home;.and of course-to make their native land literally the Garden of America ; inter- spersed with avenues to market, by which their produets may be transported rapidly, cheaply and safely—affording rich and am- ple rewards for their capital, which, as he observed, consists mainly in their unsur- passed industry and enterprise.

MrvG. ‘said he could not but advert to the rapid growth of Ohio, whose admission into the Union he well recollected, with a population of less than sixty thousand ; but on a visit there within a few years, he found her with more than a niillion of hardy, in- dustrious inhabitants, who were pushing, with great spirit, their works of internal improvement. Why then should Conneeti- cut, whose history is of two centuries, de- lay to pursue the same path?

She would not, he was confident, longer delay—and with this spirit of liberal fore. cast and mutual concession and assistance, she will go forward until every part of the State participates in the benéfits of Internal Improvements.

After a short and pertinent address from Col. Jupson, Member of Congress elect, the President of the Company introduced his Excelleney the Governor, and thus ad- dressed him :

I beg leave, Sir, to return you thanks, in behalf of myself and the Directors of this Company, for your presence on this ocea- sion; and permit me to present you with this implement (a pick-axe) with which you ate desired to strike the first blow, as a commencement of the work in which we are now engaged, and that we may have an evidence that you are favorably disposed towards it, and also as a token that you will hereafter lend it all the aid in your power.

Gov. Edwards then addressed the com-

upon Whieh he had been called upon to per- form a similar duty. It was with no small degree of pleasure that he undertook the first, and he felt equal pleasure on the pre- sent. Qn the former occasion he had re- marked that it was the first Railroad ever commenced in the State of Connecticut, but he indulged the pleasing expectation of soon seeing them intersect every part. of the State’; from present indications, those ex-

pany. He said it was the second occasivn.

| cently attended a celebration at Hartford of

the first settlement of the country. It is two hundred years sinee Uneas lived. Where | is he now ? Where are his kindred ? Where

are they? They are oh and almost forgotten, and in a very t time the sun

| will not shine upon the red man within

our State. These effects. are the results

| of the laws of: nature.

He then drew a comparison ircen an- cient and modern’ vies, and gave the'ad. vantage to the latter, for which they were indebted to the art of printing, and the invention of steamboats and Railroads ; whieh had changed the. face.of,the world,

not only morally and ‘politically, but physi- cally. It was almost impossible to define the influence of Railroads, Canals, and steamboats ; but the period was not far distant: when we should have, if not our Londons, at least our Liverpools, and Bris- tols, our Manchesters and Birminghams. These were pleasing anticipations, which would soon be realized, astonishing as they were to ourselves and to the whole world.

The Governor concluded by saying that he did not attend there for the purpose of making a long and elaborate harangue; but to break ground. He would now proceed to perforin that duty with the utmost cheer- fulpess, as his whele heart and soul were in the undertaking.

The President of the Company now step- ped forward, and expressed his regret that many of the distinguished individuals who had been invited to attend, had been pre- vented by other avocations from being pre- sent. Among these were Governor Marcy and Chancellor Kent, of New York; Mr. Hale, member of Congress from New Lon- don; the late Gov. Lincoln, Hon. Daniel Webster, and His Excellency Edw. Everett, Governor-elect of Massachusetts. He read extracts from the letters of these gentlemen, all of whom regretted being unable to attend, and expressed their best wishes for the sue. cess of the work.

The Governor then (half past one) step- ped forward with the pick-axe, and com. menced breaking ground, which. was shov- elled into wheelbarrows, by the Président and Directors, and wheeled away by the Mayors of Norwich and New London, and John Breed, Esq. The Presidents of other Railroads, the corporate authorities of Nor- wich and New London, and the other in- vited guests, were then requested to step ing been done, the tools and barrows were collected by the Directors, and formally handed over to the Engineers, Messrs. Kirkwood and Laurie, by the President, who, in a few words, reminded them of the

pectations will speedily be realized. In

y win @ retrospect of past times the mind is filled ‘with ‘astonishment. He had re-

| The procession was then formed again in the same order, and returned to Norwich,

importance and responsibility of their du-

ties, and that the Company would look to_

forward and lend their aid, which. hav-

thém’ffor the faithful performatice ‘of. their _

pp and the proper construction of the oad

est, n the e cipate pines: cordig and vi subjec our t confid wich | their utility The Wich ¢

Wa. I Wm. ( Jon . ARTHI Cua’s Danna Josep)


fotmbitba of whith were rendered more gratifying in consequence of the splendor of the day, and the perfeet harinony which prevailed.

On our return to the Franklin House, we found prepared an excellent dinner, of which we partook, in company with a few Ladies and Gentlemen of Norwich and the neigh- boring towns, who, in common. with our- self, appeared to take as much pleasure in the products, as in the prospects, of. New England ; and it was not at all surprising, after a march of four miles, that most of ts handled the implements of the table with quite as much earnestness as we had done those in the field.

On leaving the table at half past 3, P.M. —an hour earlier, perhaps, than we should willingly have assented to, but for the ne- cegsity of leaving for New York in the boat at 4 o’cloeck—we parted reluctantly with those from whom we had received, in so short a period, many tokens of respect and kindness.

We left them with feelings of 7“ inter- est, not only in the success of the work, in the commencement of which we had parti- cipated ; but also in the prosperity and hap- piness of those by whom we hal been so cordially received, and so politely treated ; and we cannot therefore take leave of the subject without thus publicly expressing our thanks, and at the same time our confident belief that the friends of the Nor- wich and Worcester Railroad will realize their most sanguine antieipations of its utility and value,

The following are the officers of the Nor- wich and Worcester Railroad :—

Wu, C. Gaiman, President.


Wau. P. Green, Joun Burgeo, Wu. C. Gruman, Asa Cuttps, Jounn A. Rockweitu, Tuomas Rowsnson, Anruuan F. Guapman, E. J. Apperson, Cua’s W. Rockweun, Aswan Fasner, Dinu; W. Corr, 9G. P. Perens. losgpu RiPLEX,

~ +s. mgineers. : les P, Kirkwoon, Jawks Lavrte.

ha ty

Important To Rattgoap ComPanigEs,— The following letter is from a gentleman in London, on whose opinion we place much téianee, and especially so in relation to the subject. on which he now writes to us.

‘tcannot, in the nature of things, be other. wise than ‘that Reilroad Tron must advance ii price, as the number of Roads under con: struction inereases ; and it therefore follows, that these Companies that intend to use. iron next season, will do well to give their orders early ; and it would seem to us that, Where other business does not require the

he ceremonies, the per- |

sending of an agent to Europe, a better gent could not be employed thay Mr. Ral- Han, who writes this letter, or his brother,

nected with him in business. London, October 9, 1835,

To the Editor of the Am. Railroad Journal: =~

Dear Sir,—I beg your acceptance of the inclosed papers, on the subject of Railways projected in this country. ‘The evidence of several eminent Engineers, given before a Committee of the House of Lords, contains information of the greatest value on the subject of the gradients on a Railway, and I think your readers will be grateful to you for publishing it in your excellent Railroad Journal. As your readers are much inter- ested in Railway lron, I will communicate

the most recent information on the subject of common iron, the demand for which, of course, regulates the price of the other. On the 25th August last, the iron masters of Wales had a meeting at Cardiff, and as- certained, from mutual inquiries, that there had been a diminution of the stock of iron, (Welch only,) since the commencement of this year up to that time, of the large quan. tity of 45,000 tons, notwithstanding the ma- nufaeture was going on more extensively than usual. This fact induced them to ad- vance. the price of No, 2, bars, from £5: 10 per tonto £6. per ton. Since’ then orders have come in on the most extensive scale, and, on the 9th Septemher, ult., they were induced to advance the price to £6 : 10 per ton; and again, on the 30th September, ult., they announced a further rise of 10 shillings per ton, making £7 per ton free on board at Cardiff and Newport., The Staffordshire, Shropshire, and other midland county iron masters, have advanced in an equal propor- tion. Some of the largest iron masters have recently informed me, that so great is the demand, that all the establishments in Wales have already orders for execution to keep them busy during the remainder of this year ; and as orders continue to come in from all quarters, principally from the Mediterranean, Holland, Germany, the Uni- ted States, and also for exportation to the East Indies and China, whilst the home de- mand, for Railway aud other purposes, is for an extraordinary amount, there is every prospect of another advance of 10 shillings per ton, before the expiration of many weeks. I am told by experienced persons, that the demandjnow is greater for iron than was ever before known, excepting during the bubble year, 1825, when the de- mand was altogether of a speculative cha- racter ; now the demand appears to be, ex- clusively and bona fide, for immediate con- sumption.

To show you how. this. affects Railway Iron, I will communicate a few particulars of my own transactions, within a few months. I contracted, on thejlast of March last, on behalf of a, Railway Company, in

the State of New-York, for about 1000 tons.

of oh ge and paid £7:4 per ton for edge

rail, (being No. 3 iron, and when manufae- tured into rails, ought to be 40 shillings per ton higher than common No. 2 bars.)

Mr. Al Ralston, of Philadelphia, who i is con- | Early i in May I contracted, in behalf of a

New-Jersey Com any, for about 1600 tons of edge rails, at : 6 per ton. Last month, September, after iron had advanced 20 shil- lings per ton, I made a contract for 2000 tons of edge rails, fora Delaware Company, at £8:5 per ton; and a few days after, for 1300 tons of sige rails, for a Pennsylvania

Company, at £8 per ton, but the pattern is

less difficultto roll-than that for the Dela- ware Company. I have also contracted for several thousand tons of chairs, pins, wedges, flat bars, &c., but it is unnecessary to give their prices, because they are regu- lated also by the price of No 2 common bars.

To enable your readers to judge what would be the price of to-day, if I were now in the market, I should think the March, May, and September contracts could not be done under £8: 15 per ton; and that for the Delaware Company, (being difficult to manufacture,) not under £9 per ton. From this you will see, that those Companies who sent their orders early, have reason to con- gratulate themselves, that they have been executed before the great advance in iron was effected. As the great Railway from ‘London to MSL gr (220 miles) may want some 20,000 or 25,000 tons of very heavy rails, (60lbs. per yard,) in the spring, and as the “Southampton,” (75 miles,) **‘Western,” (120 miles,) and many other mi- nor Railways will want large quantities, du- ring the summer of next year, I should not be surprised if edge rails should be advanced to £11 per ton, by the Ist of May next, and iron will continue high during the whole of next year. I may be mistaken, but having had some experience in this trade, from having bought and exported to the United Stutes (my brother and myself) upwards of 40,000 tons of Railway Iron, within a few years, I think I have some acquaintance with the iron market of this country. If the French Government should imitate the wise example of our American Government, and allow Railway Iron to be imported free of duty, as it is now reported to’be their inten- tion, [ have no doubt this will give an impe- tus to the construction of Railroads in that country, which will still farther advance the price of iron. All countries throughout the © world must get their Railway fron in Eng. land, where it is manufaetured with such economy, such rapidity,* and so perfectly, that it is useless to pretend'to compete with this branch of industry.

I beg to’ send you the London Meclianics’ Magazine for August, and to ask the favor

*JI once had 1800 tons

of edge rails, of 40ibs. per | vard, pacer setae: erp 8 the time the order left Ame

es ge sig ny oe of Pennsylvania ; the ; before

; order ro copaaemteney ‘This extraordinary despatch was by. one e p ine.

house in Wales, who Fo on chele af ienan veal sees anmmaaie did 4 months! But 1 would not promise equal

now, for all the iron masters are

1 <7? and S Cee eT nce ta glewel @ ae. ,


ing the steamboat Lexington,” plying be- ‘tween New-York and Providence. You will observe, in page 384, an account of the performance of this boat from Providence to New-York, 210 miles, in 12 hours, which I cut out of a New-York paper, and sent to the Editor for publication; and in pages 430 and 431, the whole account is treated as a gross exaggeration by “Fanqui,” and discredit is thrown upon it by W. Thorold, of Norwich. You will observe the Editor of the Mechanics’ Magazine invites the at- tention of Americans to ‘the letters of Mr- Thorold and Fanqui, for the purpose of controverting their doubts, and to furnish additional information respecting “the fast- est boat in the world.” I have no means of obtaining this informatien, or I would not trouble you. But if you will publish Fan- qui’s letter, and request the. proprietors ef the Lexington” to furnish you with au- thentic information respecting her, which publish, and request the Editor of the Lon- don Mechanics’ Magazine to transfer to his columns, the character of our cvuntrymen may be vindicated. People in this country think we are rather disposed to shoot with the long bow,” and it is desirable to correct this opinion, so injurious to our national character. I am, dear Sir, Very respectfully, yours, Gerarp Ratston. In relation te the steamboat Lexington, ind the correspondents of the London Me- chanics’ Magazine, our reader are in pos- session of the whole subject ; and we hope soon to give them, and the readers and doubters of the London work, such evidence of the performances of that extraordinary boat, as will put at rest the controversy about the ‘fastest ship in the world.”

Lone Leve.s, witn Steer Grapes, in preference toa more uniform distribution through the whole line of the elevation to be overcome, appears to be the opinion of several of the most eminent Engineers in Great Britain.

We publish to-day several extracts from an examination, before the House of Lords, of Mr. Vignoles, Mr. George, and Mr. Ro- bert Stephenson, Mr. Henry R. Palmer, Mr. H. H. Price, and Dr. Lardner, in relation to the most judicious Grades for a Rail- road. There appears to be but one opinion amongst them on the subject, which can. not be better expressed. than in the lan. guage of Mr. Vignoles, in reply to the question, “Do you prefer the course of concentrating the inclination?” which is as follows, viz. it is far better to keep the line as flat as possible, for a great length of time, and concentrate your power by having a stationary Engine, or an assistant Bngine, to overcome it ”—(the inclination.)

We annex some remarks upon the Lon. den and Brighton Railway, together with &@ table of Gradients of Mr, Gibbs and Mr.


Stephenson, which differ materially in the distribution of the Grades.

We are indebted to Mr. G. Ralston, of Philadelphia, now in London, for these and other favors, for which he will please accept our thanks.

Remarks on the two proposed lines of Rail- way to Brighton.

Two lines of Railway to connect Brigh- ton with London have been proposed separately by Mr. Gibbs and Mr. Stephen- so


Mr. Gibbs’ line terminates at one point in London by the Croydon Railway, and at. another by means of the Southampton Railway ; Mr. Stephenson has subsequent- ly, in his proposal for a Brighton Railway, fixed upon nearly the whole of Mr. Gibbs’ line, but has adopted a different principle in planning his gradients.

The grand§point of difference in the two lines is, that the gradients of the one, namely, Mr. Stephenson’s, have the several rises and falls distributed over their whole length, whereas Mr. Gibbs has concen- trated the rises and falls on his line ina few points, in order to obtain throughout

the rest of the line either levels, or planes |

of such slight inclination, that practically ese | they may be considered level. The following table of the gradients on the two lines, will show that Mr. Gibbs has almost entirely confined his ascents and descents to three short planes, while Mr. Stephenson has distributed nearly the whole of his over 23 miles, with an inclination of

1 in 330.

Table of Gradients. Mr. Gisss’ Linz.

Miles. Chains. Feet per Mile. ll 56 Level. 3 10 1 in 1002 5 3 6 18 1 in 1188 44 5 0 1 in 1028 5 2 3 36 lin 114 46 3 2 31 lin 107 49 4 5 5 1 in 2138 2 6 2 31 lin lll 47 8 8 0 1 in 1289 4 9 Mr. STEPHENSON’s Linz. Miles. Feet per Mile. 15 1 in 1100 4 9 5} 550 ll 7 33 330 16 0

It is well known to all those who have attended to the progress of Railways in this country, that the question as to what des. cription of gatos is best adapted for the transit on Railways, has excited the most anxious interest in the scientific world and amongst Engineers.

Accordingly we find that the Committee of the House of Lords on the Great West- ern Railway Bill, has received important evidence from various Engineers upon this amongst other topics which engaged their attention.

From the evidence adduced before this Committee, the following extracts are taken.

It is unnecessary to comment upon these extracts, which contain the recorded opi- nions of some of the most eminent Engi- neers in this country, and their opinions are of so recent a date, that they must be supposed to express the result of their matured judgment and experience up to the present time. 3 Mr. George Stephenson in evidence on

the Great West 7 7 ioe, 1685, estern Railway Bill, July

Question. With the exception of the

Box Tunnel, you know of no Railroad of such an extent with such advantageous

levels ? Answer: Ido not. Question. With reference to the ineli-

nation of the Box Tunnel, in your vindg- ment, is it advisable to select a point where, by making a steeper inclination upon a

8 line, you can regulate the rest of the levels upon the line advan usly ? Answer. It is always plan I have

adopted in all the works I have been con- cerned in.

Question. Was that the reason you adopted the yee a me on the Liverpool of a mile and a half, where you have one in ninety-six on the one side, and one in ninety-eight on the other ?

Answer. It is about ninety on the other.

Question. Did you select those inelina- tions in preference. to spreading it over a larger surface of your Railway ?

Answer. 1 did.

State your reasons for doing it.

Answer. To allow the engines to bring the heaviest loads possible to the bottom of the inclined plane, by having an assistant engine to get up the load ; but if I had dis. tributed that inclination over a longer length, the engine could not have got up that long incline, and it is too long to have an assistant engine.

Mr. George Stephenson. July 2nd, 1535.

Question. Is not the expense of the repair of the engines very much in propor- tion to the gradients upon the line ?

Answer. It is.

Question. And the difficulties they have to overcome ?

Answer. Yes.

Question. And therefore you think it better to have a steeper rise at one place, to be worked by a supplementary engine, or a fixed engine, than to give worse gra- dients throughout the line ?

Answer. ‘That is my opinion.

Mr. Vignoles in evidence on the Great Western Railway Bill. July 13th, 1835.

Question. Is 1 in 107 a very bad plane!

Answer. No; it appears scarcely a rise to the eye of a common observer ; it is a plane that requires great additional power, and it is better to. concentrate the power in one spot than expend it upon long inclina- tions over a greater space of ground.

Question.” Do you prefer that course of i inclination ?

Answer. Most undoubtedly; it is far better to keep the line as flat as possible for a great length of time, and concentrate your power by having a stationary engine, or an assistant engine to overcome it.

| Copy of a Report Messrs. Stephenson ge y Ee a

“To the Directors of the Great Western Railway Company :

*Gentlemen,—In reply to your inquiry relative to our investigation of the proposed line of Railway between London and Bris- tol, in which you particularly refer to the practical construction of. the work, and the working of it by locomotive engines when

completed, and whether Mr. Brunel had tuken our opinion before he made the se- lection between the two’ inclinations at Saeed tencalcbn al deacitenaipgs. wete of mi whole. t : the ‘proposed line, and consider i, jo Iaisk Got ules @ Shin Ser the in execu wo when executed: and that Mr. Brunel did ee eppaons ions upon the two planes

x #. “Our advice to him was that he should

“pee 3 2 Se se re ok

OS esaetecessten



att ve}


cor tha is | tine of | por:

7. and ine]

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select the shorter and conten, the rise in one point, with a

length for working either by stationary or assistant locomotive engines,

he reduced all the remaining inclinations

on the line to the t favorable ia And we beg in addition to this to state, that many lines with planes of si. milar or greater length have been executed, and are now working efficiently, and that no difficulties in the execution of the work can be anticipated.

“The levels of your proposed line are undoubtedly ae to door of the South- ampton, or the Basing and Bath, or of any other extensive line with which we are acquainted, and are therefore better adapt- ed to the working of the locometive en-

ines, both as regards economy and expe- ition. ; “We are, gentlemen, “Your obedient servants, “Grorcr STEPHENSON,

Henry R, Pater. London, March 31st, 1835.”

Mr. R. Stephenson in evidence on the ae Western Railway Bill. July 8th,

Question. Is there more than one way of working a Stationary Engine?

Answer. Yes.

Question. Are those different methods attended with difficulty !

Answer. No; I have seen them all act very efficiently.

ducdlion. I do not know whether you remember the alternative suggested, instead of that Box Tunnel, with a rise of 1 in 107 for two miles and a half ?

Answer. Yes. Question. It was 1 in 333 for nine thiles 1

Atiswer. About that.

Question. Which du you prefer?

Answer. I prefer the coticentration of the inclination. |

Question. at do you gain by the concentration of the itichnation 4

Answer. You apply a fixed Engine to that to which it is more = eos and it is more economical upon that inclination ; tnd you make the remainder of the dis. tatite ere so, Manne for the operation of Locomotive Engines.

Question. What do you gain by it in point of power?

Answer. Very great economy of power, and you save a great deal of wear and tear in the Railway.

Question. Where the proportion of that

clination is two miles and a half, and the test of the line such 2s you have described it, do you gain in point of speed also?

. Answer. Yes; but the principal saving is economy.

Mr. R. Stephenson in evidence on the Great Western Railwoy Bill. July 10th, 1835.

Question. Have you any knowledge of the Tunnel at Box Hill, except what you have derived from Mr. Brunel!

Answer. As tothe cost of making the Tunnel I cannot give an opinion.

Question. Do you know any thing of the ecuntry at that spot, so.as to judge of the expediency of making a tunnel or not? _ Answer. No; 4q

'Qiteetios. “Fell me the dgte upon which

ed? ge Ba In preference to an inclination

of gix or eight miles at sixteen feet in a mile, | prefer a Tunnel; but I would not make a ‘Tunnel in other cases to avoid an

steeper, as by con-


EE, eee + me se

inclination ; it is made horn inaiebie the common engine to accomplish the journey upon the rest of the line.

Mr. H. H. Price in evidence on the Great Western Railway Bill. July 7th, 1835.

Question. With reference to the Box Tunnel, do you approve of the method we have heard so much of, namely, the con- centration of the steepest inclination upon one spot?

Answer. Yes; 1 stated that opinion to Mr. Brunel! when I first met him at Stroud, after the plans were deposited.

Question. That is not an opinion you have taken up lately ?

Answer. No.

Question. What is the advantage gained by that concentration ?

Answer. That you may apply assistant power to overcome the elevation of the country at one point, instead of spreading it over a greater space of the line.

Question. What is the result if you do not apply assistant power ?

Answer. They carry lighter loads, or they go at a smaller speed.

Question. Or—is there not another al- ternative ? Answer. You may have a fixed engine.

Dr. Lardner in evidence on the Great Western Railway Bill. August 6th, 1835.

The artifice used in forming the Great Western Line (and a very good one it is) consists in concentrating the greatest rise in both directions upon one spot, and by that means obtaining a more uniform level, and so far as that goes it is a great ad- vantage.

Mr. R. Stephenson in evidence on the Southampton Railway Bill. June 25th, 1834.

Question. Is it an object also to get the best levels that can be got ?

Answer. Of course it is.

Question. If the level in such a Railroad as this, is such, that there are fifteen miles in going up to the summit of J in 300, would you consider that as an inconvenient rise, if you could avoid it?

Answer. If I could avoid it, certainly.

Question. Would you prefer lessening the inclination, and having a short part where the inclination should be so much

reater as to require the assistance of an ngine.

Answer. piece. :

Question. Upon the Liverpool and Man- chester you have two inclinations of one in eighty-six and one in ninety-six ?

Answer. Yes.

Question. _Was that mode of construc. tion adopted with a view of enabling the engines to act with all their full power up to the rest of the line, and to have the assistance of stationary engines at that point ? ;

Answer. Tliat was the object.

Question. I believe you consider that an inclination of 1 in 240 diminishes half the power ? ;

Answer. Yes, thereabouts : it has been

taken at 300, but I think 1 in 240 is more

correct. Question. Should you consider it de-

I think I would prefer a short

I treat it as an abstract |

sirable to construct a line of Railroad with fifteen miles with an inclination of 1 in 300,

or should you r.a shorter length of a steeper i 1 haneees uld prefer the short incli-

nation, if the other levels that were obtained by that tmenns Were good levels. = Question.